Another extraordinary site is Shanidar Cave in Iraq, which some think was an actual Neanderthal graveyard. Remains of 10 Neanderthals – seven adults and three infants – were dug up there 60 years ago, offering insight into their physical characteristics, behaviour and diet. Figure 1. a) Shanidar Cave as viewed from the south; b) plan of Ralph Solecki's excavations at Shanidar Cave showing Solecki's trench (black grid), the locations of the Neanderthal skeletons he discovered (numbered) and the area of the new excavations undertaken since 2015 (red outline) (photograph by G. Barker, illustration by R. Solecki & R. Lane). "In recent years we have seen increasing evidence that Neanderthals were more sophisticated than previously thought, from cave markings to use of decorative shells and raptor talons,” Pomeroy added. Introduction. The cave was a pivotal site for mid-20th century archaeology. The find was made at the Shanidar Cave, which became an iconic Paleolithic site in the mid-20th century after researcher Ralph Solecki uncovered the partial remains of 10 Neanderthals there. One of the individuals, called Shanidar 4, was surrounded by clumps of pollen, and archaeologists wondered whether other Neanderthals had intentionally buried the body and placed flowers at its grave. One of the most significant archaeological sites of the 20th century is Shanidar Cave in Iraqi Kurdistan. Other clues also hint that Shanidar Z was intentionally buried. Shanidar Cave is a large, south-facing, karstic cave located at around 750m asl in the foothills of the Baradost Mountains of north-east Iraqi Kurdistan ().Between 1951 and 1960, Ralph Solecki dug an approximately 20 × 6m trench, oriented roughly north–south, in the centre of the cave floor. The individual - dubbed Shanidar Z - was perhaps in his or her 40s or 50s. About 10 Neanderthal bodies have been unearthed there, of which one may have been laid to rest on a bed of flowers. The cave was a pivotal site for mid-20th century archaeology. Earlier excavations of Shanidar cave in northern Iraq suggested that flowers were scattered on the body of one Neanderthal before being deliberately buried. The sex was undetermined. However, this idea was not widely accepted at the time, as there was a possibility that the flowers could have been added later by burrowing rodents. Researchers believe they cared for one another, produced art and incorporated symbolic objects into their culture. The researchers say there is strong early evidence that Shanidar Z was deliberately buried. The individual – dubbed Shanidar Z – was perhaps in his or her 40s or 50s with their sex undetermined. At this site, over 60 years ago, scientists unearthed the bones of … An articulated skeleton is one where the bones are still arranged in their original positions. 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