Cancer mortality from 1950 through 2000 wa … Since then, most of the Hanford reactors have been entombed ("cocooned") to allow the radioactive materials to decay, and the surrounding structures have been removed and buried. [92][93][94] About 11,000 workers are on site to consolidate, clean up, and mitigate waste, contaminated buildings, and contaminated soil. Washington Research Tools. What was the population at peak, and at the time of depopulation if different? Before the end of the war in August 1945, the HEW built 554 buildings at Hanford, including three nuclear reactors (105-B, 105-D, and 105-F) and three plutonium processing canyons (221-T, 221-B, and 221-U), each 250 meters (820 ft) long. [21], On March 10, 1945, the Hanford Plutonium Works had been temporarily shut down due to Japanese bomb carrying balloon attacks, which had been ongoing since November 3, 1944. This land is closed to the general public. The Hanford Reach is the remaining free-flowing stretch of the Columbia River that remains wild and undammed, most likely resembling how the great river appeared prior to 1850. Top Stories Analytical Lab Deemed Ready to Operate. Copyright © 2021 HTL, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hanford (GNIS FID: 1511641) is a populated place located in Benton County at latitude 46.584 and longitude -119.388. Weber, Bert. Between 1944 and 1957, radioactive 131I was released into the environment from the Hanford site. Craig, AK: Hanford, CA: United States Population: 1,285: 55,599: 321,004,407 Female Population: 48.0%: 49.6%: 50.8% Male Population: 52.0%: 50.4%: 49.2% Median Age Washington, UT: Hanford, CA: United States Population: 24,231: 55,599: 321,004,407 Female Population: 51.8%: 49.6%: 50.8% Male Population: 48.2%: 50.4%: 49.2% Median Age [97], Under the Tri-Party Agreement, lower-level hazardous wastes are buried in huge lined pits that will be sealed and monitored with sophisticated instruments for many years. [75] Radiation was later measured 200 miles (320 km) downstream as far west as the Washington and Oregon coasts. It is believed that up to six of these "empty" tanks are leaking. [108] Their first suit was dismissed in July 2011. [2] Extensive modifications and upgrades were made to the original three World War II reactors, and a total of 177 underground waste tanks were built. [34] Two hundred short tons (180 t) of uranium slugs, 1.625 inches (4.13 cm) diameter by 8 inches (20 cm) long, sealed in aluminium cans went into the tubes. The ideal site was described by these criteria:[23], In December 1942, Groves dispatched his assistant Colonel Franklin T. Matthias and DuPont engineers to scout potential sites. Analyses published in 2009 concluded that the sample originated at Oak Ridge, and was one of several sent to Hanford for optimization tests of the T-Plant until Hanford could produce its own plutonium. Aussprache [ˈwɒʃɪŋtən]) ist ein Bundesstaat der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika.Er liegt im Nordwesten der USA an der Küste des Pazifischen Ozeans, nördlich von Oregon, westlich von Idaho und südlich von British Columbia in Kanada.. Gemessen an seiner Fläche steht Washington unter den US-Bundesstaaten mit 184.665 Quadratkilometern an 18. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma, 1974-1993, fails to support the theory that radioactive fall-out from the Hanford, Washington Nuclear Energy Center has increased the incidence of thyroid cancer in the State of Washington. Washington state officials expressed concern about the budget cuts, as well as missed deadlines and recent safety lapses at the site, and threatened to file a lawsuit alleging that the Department of Energy was in violation of environmental laws. Longer-lived isotopes were not affected by this retention, and several terabecquerels entered the river every day. Between 1944 and 1957, radioactive 131I was released into the environment from the Hanford site. The tours are free, can be reserved in advance via the department's web site, and are limited to U.S. citizens at least 18 years of age. The Hanford Site occupies 586 square miles (1,518 km )—roughly equivalent to half of the total area of Rhode Island—within Benton County, Washington. On Tuesday, the last full day of Donald Trump's presidency, the official death count reached 400,000 — a once-unthinkable number. Tri-Cities, which grew out of Hanford, has a combined population of about 200,000. Today, this Tri-Cities area is home to over 120,000 people, most of whom would probably live, work, and spend money somewhere else were it not for what the federal government allowed to accumulated at the 560 square mile Hanford Site from … Benton County is in the Pacific Time Zone (UTC -8 hours). Hanford Area 2000 Population. [12] The original site was 670 square miles (1,740 km2) and included buffer areas across the river in Grant and Franklin counties. [46][47][48][49], In 1976, a Hanford technician named Harold McCluskey received the largest recorded dose of americium following a laboratory accident. ), BIG Map | You can also look for cities 4 hours from Hanford, WA (or 3 hours or 2 hours or 1 hour). Hanford, CA: Tacoma, WA: United States Population: 55,599: 207,280: 321,004,407 Female Population: 49.6%: 50.3%: 50.8% Male Population: 50.4%: 49.7%: 49.2% Median Age [76] Screens and fish ladders were also used to protect wildlife. A descriptive epidemiologic study of cancer mortality among residents of counties near the Hanford nuclear facility site in Richland, Washington, was conducted. [2] Besides the cleanup project, Hanford also hosts a commercial nuclear power plant, the Columbia Generating Station, and various centers for scientific research and development, such as the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Fast Flux Test Facility and the LIGO Hanford Observatory. It is a desert environment receiving under 10 inches of annual precipitation, covered mostly by shrub-steppe vegetation. Hanford is located in southeastern Washington State along the scenic Columbia River. "[41], Initially six reactors or "piles" were proposed, when the plutonium was to be used in the gun-type Thin Man bomb. The Columbia Riverflows along the site for approximately 50 miles (80 km), forming its northern and eastern boundary. [13] Settlers moved into the region in the 1860s, initially along the Columbia River south of Priest Rapids. They came up with a modular cell concept, which allowed major components to be removed and replaced by an operator sitting in a heavily shielded overhead crane. Those talks stalled in October 2007. Even today, 10 perfect of the workforce is employed, one way or another, by Hanford… Data Source - USGS GNIS FID: 1511641, BOUNDARY MAPS: The reactor went critical in late September and, after overcoming neutron poisoning, produced its first plutonium on November 6, 1944. OSTI.GOV Technical Report: Analysis of invertebrate populations inhabiting the shrub-steppe region of southcentral Washington (Hanford Reservation) The Met Lab researchers worked on producing chain-reacting "piles" of uranium to convert it to plutonium and finding ways to separate plutonium from uranium. The elk population in Washington was estimated at 15,000 in 1930 and peaked in 1970 at approximately 69,000 (McCall 1997b). As an example, plutonium-239 has a half-life of 24,100 years, and a decay of ten half-lives is required before a sample is considered to cease its radioactivity. The cleanup effort is focused on three outcomes: restoring the Columbia River corridor for other uses, converting the central plateau to long-term waste treatment and storage, and preparing for the future. [38] In 2005, two of six plaintiffs who went to trial were awarded $500,000 in damages. Over the entire 40 years of operations, the site produced about 63 short tons (57 t) of plutonium, supplying the majority of the 60,000 weapons in the U.S. A taxonomic key and species diagnosis are provided to assist in identification by the nonspecialist. The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Get Current Demographic Data for Cities, Towns, and ZIP Codes, View Boundary Maps, for Cities, Towns, and ZIP Codes, Locate Physical, Cultural, and Historical Features. Although total Hanford prime contractor employment has grown 18% from 7,340 in 1997 to 8,666 in 2008, the populations of Benton and Franklin counties have increased 28%, from 183,709 to 235,700 during this period (OFM 2009). [2][3] Uranium-233 was also produced. Although uranium enrichment and plutonium breeding were slowly phased out, the nuclear legacy left an indelible mark on the Tri-Cities. DuPont recommended that it be located far away from the existing uranium production facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In 1949, an intentional release known as the "Green Run" released 8,000 Curies (296 Tbq) of iodine-131 over two days. [105][106], Some of the radioactive waste at Hanford was supposed to be stored in the planned Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository,[107] but after that project was suspended, Washington State sued, joined by South Carolina. arsenal. Without determining the extent to which the factors that contributed to the leak in AY-102 were similar to the other 27 double-shell tanks, DOE cannot be sure how long its double-shell tanks can safely store waste. "[82], In February 2013, Governor Jay Inslee announced that a tank storing radioactive waste at the site had been leaking liquids on average of 150 to 300 gallons per year. [5] Intermittent discoveries of undocumented contamination have slowed the pace and raised the cost of cleanup.[6]. In 2007, the Hanford site represented 60% of high-level radioactive waste by volume managed by the US Department of Energy[7] and 7–9% of all nuclear waste in the United States (the DOE manages 15% of nuclear waste in the US, with the remaining 85% being commercial spent nuclear fuel). Benton County. [37] [112], Cooling water retention basins at the F-Reactor, Underground tank farm with 12 of the site's 177 waste storage tanks, View of the central plateau from Rattlesnake Mountain, The government town of Richland in the early days of the site, Hanford scientists feeding radioactive food to sheep, "Atomic Frontier Days" parade in Richland, Decommissioned nuclear production complex in Washington, United States. During the Cold War, the project expanded to include nine nuclear reactors and five large plutonium processing complexes, which produced plutonium for most of the more than 60,000 weapons built for the U.S. nuclear arsenal. Research Neighborhoods Home Values, School Zones & Diversity Instant Data Access! The Hanford Nuclear Site is located in eastern Washington State, and encompasses more than 500 square miles of land. As the Cold War began, the United States faced a new strategic threat in the rise of the Soviet nuclear weapons program. Monitors worn by tank workers have found no samples with chemicals close to the federal limit for occupational exposure. [79], Beginning in the 1960s, scientists with the U.S. Public Health Service published reports about radioactivity released from Hanford, and there were protests from the health departments of Oregon and Washington. [44]:interview with Generaux, In September 1946, the General Electric Company assumed management of the Hanford Works under the supervision of the newly created Atomic Energy Commission. Hanford, CA: Tucson, AZ: United States Population: 55,599: 530,905: 321,004,407 Female Population: 49.6%: 50.2%: 50.8% Male Population: 50.4%: 49.8%: 49.2% Median Age [94] Nearby aquifers contain an estimated 270,000,000,000 US gallons (1.0×1012 l; 2.2×1011 imp gal) of contaminated groundwater as a result of the leaks. The general public was not made aware of it, until August 31, 1945, when such information was released to the public. [38] A mass tort lawsuit brought by two thousand Hanford downwinders against the federal government spent many years in the court system. For nearly 30 years, The U.S. Department of Defense and the Department of Energy produced tons of plutonium for use in the atomic weapon program. The last reactor, N Reactor, continued to operate as a dual-purpose reactor, being both a power reactor used to feed the civilian electrical grid via the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) and a plutonium production reactor for nuclear weapons. The highest iodine-129 concentration of 0.19 pCi/L (0.007 Bq/L) was also found in a Hanford Townsite spring. They paid more than $60 million in legal fees and $7 million in damages. Washington. [45], By 1963, the Hanford Site was home to nine nuclear reactors along the Columbia River, five reprocessing plants on the central plateau, and more than 900 support buildings and radiological laboratories around the site. Other detected contaminants include arsenic, chromium, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and sulfate. The Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS) is a scientific study conducted to determine whether the risk of thyroid disease is increased among people exposed to radioactive iodine (iodine-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Site in Washington … By 2005, some liquid waste was transferred from single shell tanks to (safer) double shell tanks. QuickFacts provides statistics for all states and counties, and for cities and towns with a population of 5,000 or more. In December, Congress approved a record-high environmental cleanup budget of $2.6 billion for the Hanford nuclear reservation in Eastern Washington. At every meal, more than 50 tons of food was served; If the 51,000 construction workers who built Hanford in the 1940s were to have formed a real town back then, Hanford would have been the fourth largest city in Washington Recorded in at least the four spellings of Hanaford, Handford, Handforth and Hanford, this is an English locational surname. The federal government quickly acquired the land under its war powers authority[25] and relocated some 1,500 residents of Hanford, White Bluffs, and nearby settlements, as well as the Wanapum people, Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakima Nation, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and the Nez Perce Tribe. At the time, plutonium was a rare element that had only recently been isolated in a University of California laboratory. [73][38] Between 2009 and 2018, approximately 80,000 people visited the site, bringing an estimated annual tourist income of two million dollars to the surrounding area. More than 100,000 Americans have perished in the pandemic in just the past five weeks. Due to prompt medical intervention, he survived the incident and died eleven years later of natural causes. Fish and Wildlife Service Prepared by Joseph Arnett April 18, 2013 . Two tanks are reportedly leaking at a rate of 300 gallons (1,136 liters) per year each, while the remaining four tanks are leaking at a rate of 15 gallons (57 liters) per year each. liquid, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 04:03. Features [8] Hanford is currently the most contaminated nuclear site in the United States[9][10] and is the focus of the nation's largest environmental cleanup. The plant was originally scheduled to be operational by 2011, with vitrification completed by 2028. [111], The Hanford site operations were initially directed by Colonel Franklin Matthias of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In October 2015, the Department of Energy resolved the final cases. The research contract was awarded to scientists at the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab). [78] Another source of contaminated food came from Columbia River fish, an impact felt disproportionately by Native American communities who depended on the river for their customary diets. [18] Hanford archaeologists have identified numerous Native American sites, including "pit house villages, open campsites, fish farming sites, hunting/kill sites, game drive complexes, quarries, and spirit quest sites",[13] and two archaeological sites were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. In December 1942, the Army Corps of Engineers worked with DuPont to establish criteria for the selection of a site for plutonium production facilities. [15], The site is bordered on the southeast by the Tri-Cities, a metropolitan area composed of Richland, Kennewick, Pasco, and smaller communities, and home to nearly 300,000 residents. This paper is an attempt to quantify the contribution of Priest Rapids Hatchery to the productivity of Upriver Bright stocks in the Hanford Reach natural production. [109] In a subsequent suit, federal authorities were ordered to either approve or reject plans for the Yucca Mountain storage site. Hanford Endemic Plants Population Monitoring 1997-2012 Prepared for U.S. About the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. Even today, 10 perfect of the workforce is employed, one way or another, by Hanford. In 2000, large portions of the site were turned over to the Hanford Reach National Monument. Washington (engl. [74], A huge volume of water from the Columbia River was required to dissipate the heat produced by Hanford's nuclear reactors. [35] Cooling water was pumped through the aluminium tubes around the uranium slugs at the rate of 30,000 US gallons (110,000 L) per minute.[34]. Cancer mortality from 1950 through 2000 wa … [91] Citing the 2014 Hanford Lifecycle Scope Schedule and Cost report, the 2014 estimated cost of the remaining Hanford clean up is $113.6 billion – more than $3 billion per year for the next six years, with a lower cost projection of approximately $2 billion per year until 2046. Most of these airborne releases were a part of Hanford's routine operations, while a few of the larger releases occurred in isolated incidents. Tribes and nations including the Yakama, Nez Perce, and Umatilla used the area for hunting, fishing, and gathering plant foods. [40] General Groves noted in his memoirs that "We made certain that each member of the project thoroughly understood his part in the total effort; that, and nothing more. This first batch of plutonium was refined in the 221-T plant from December 26, 1944, to February 2, 1945, and delivered to the Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico on February 5, 1945.